100 Nano-Stories: Nomenclature Of Organic Chemistry!

Preface! ✨

It’s your favorite material science & nanotechnology enthusiast! A few days ago, I made a similar article relating to the nomenclature of aerogel mathematics!

While this has nothing to relate to organic chemistry, I highly recommend understanding the concepts before we dive more into the mathematics behind aerogel!

In the meantime, allow me to introduce the nomenclature that we will be discussing to break down the models behind the transparent aerogel chemistry!

Nomenclatures Explained! 💡

Definitions! 🔑

Nomenclatures mean a system of names, symbols, and terms for a certain branch of science, mathematics, arts, etc.

For example, there are certain rules you have to learn to understand calculus, soccer, quantum physics, etc. These rules, equations, or laws are nomenclatures for that specific branch of interest!

However, in the branch of organic chemistry, we follow something called the IUPAC Nomenclature (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)! This helps us name compounds of organic chemistry!

Some of these rules include:

  • There is the main carbon chain that has a certain number of carbons (the longest chain of carbons in the organic compound).
  • Pay attention to the shape of the molecule (triangle, cyclo, etc.) because that could be the potential prefix.
  • The suffix of the hydrocarbon reflects the number of bonds and/or functional groups in the main carbon chain.
  • Functional groups attached to the main chain can also change the suffix since they are called substituents.

Now that we know what Nomenclatures mean, let’s explain some of the common nomenclatures we have encountered and will encounter in aerogel technology!

Main Nomenclatures Of Aerogel! 🔑

-ane → Alkane.

-ene → Alkene.

-yne → Alkyne.

-yl → Substituent.

cyclo- → Ring.

hydroxy- / -ol → Alcohol.

alkoxy- /-ether → Ethers.

-(an)one → Ketone.

-(an)oic acid → Carboxylic Acid.

-al → Aldehydes.

Definitions! 🔑

Alkane → An organic compound that is only made out of carbon & hydrogen atoms, only single covalent bonds.

Alkenes → Double Bonds occur between carbon atoms in a molecule in organic chemistry.

Alkynes → Triple Bonds that occur between carbon atoms in a molecule in organic chemistry.

Hydroxyl → “OH”.

Substituents → Carbon Rings or Carbon molecules that are not part of the longest carbon chain (main carbon chain). They are chemically bonded parts of molecules attached to a larger backbone/ring.

Alcohol → (organic chemistry) It’s a methyl group attached to a hydroxyl group.

Cycloalkane → The Carbon Atoms are connected in the form of a ring, and the carbon bonds are single-bonded to other atoms.

Ether → Substituents (mostly alkyl) are attached to an oxygen atom.

Ketone → A carbonyl group (C=O) attached to hydrocarbons.

Carboxylic Acid → A group with a carbonyl group (C=O) and a hydroxyl group(O-H) attached to a R/methyl group (CH3).

Closing Thoughts! 💭

This was a brief introduction to many symbols that we have encountered and will encounter on our journey through aerogel technologies/organic chemistry via thermodynamics, chemistry, and optics!

Author’s Note:

I may have missed certain sections of these definitions, and if you lacked clarity, please leave me a comment so I can add more definitions and/or make the definition in more simple terms! I want you to understand the importance and value of such a promising nanomaterial! 😁

See you tomorrow for a brief introduction to some mathematical concepts on optics in aerogel technology! ✌🏽

Bonus Resources! 💻

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© 2021 by Carlos Manuel Jarquin Sanchez. All Rights Reserved.

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Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez

Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez

17 | Building Aquaperla: Extracting Value From Waste(water)