Aquaperla | Proposal For Cost-Effective & Biodegradable Water Filters

Access to clean drinking water affects 1.4 million people in Iztapalapa.

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Abstract

When I lived in Ejutla de Crespo, Oaxaca, Mexico, I would go to the store around the block to either get bottles of water [MXN 12.00 | USD 0.60] per 1-liter bottle] or pay for 20-liter jugs [MXN 15.00 | USD 0.75] for my family so we could consume our daily requirements. The water from our sinks would often contain microbes that would give me stomachaches, with the occasional contamination of lead in the water. This dilemma is exponentially worse in other places in Mexico. This proposal (Aquaperla) from Anna Heck, Leandro Rosas, Venkat Yarlagadda, and Carlos Jarquín outlines how to create accessible potable water for 8–20 times cheaper via filtration for the delegation of Iztapalapa and the world.

I’m in the green shirt playing “Barquitos” in Ejutla De Crespo

Outline Of Proposal

1.0 - The Problem With Iztapalapan Water

1.1 - Obstacles (Contamination, Quantity, Quality, And $$$)

1.2 - Population

1.3 - Solution Background

2.0 - The Solution: Aquaperla

2.1 - What’s Aerogel?

2.2 - The Chemistry

2.3 - The Materials *For Now*

2.3.1 - Calcium Alginate Aerogel Materials

2.3.2 - Cellulose Aerogel Materials

2.4 - The Manufacturing Process

2.5 - How It Works

2.6 - The *Estimated* Costs

2.7 - Benefit/Cost Per Person

2.7.1 - Cellulose Aerogel Only (Iztapalapa)

2.7.2 - Cellulose Aerogel Only (Papua New Guinea)

2.7.3 - Alginate Aerogel Only (Iztapalapa)

2.7.4 - Alginate Aerogel Only (Papua New Guinea)

2.7.5 - Both Aerogels (Iztapalapa)

2.7.6 - Both Aerogels (Papua New Guinea)

3.0 - Conclusions & Ask

3.1 - Aquaperla & The Vision

3.2 - Aquaperla’s Ask

3.3 - Next Steps

3.4 - Learn More About Aquaperla

3.5 - Sources + People

3.6 - Connect With Me

1.0 The Problem With Iztapalapan Water

Iztapalapa is one of the 16 territories of Mexico City. It’s also the delegation with the worst water quality in all of Mexico City. But why?

1.1 Obstacles

1,815,786 habitats in the delegation of Iztapalapa make up 453,752 homes. For every 10 people in Mexico City, 2 come from Iztapalapa.

The territory/floor of Iztapalapa is:

  • 79.8% is delegation territory [homes, roads, buildings, etc.]
  • 12.8% is urban equipment [children’s parks & bus stops], sports fields, etc.
  • 7.4% is for ecological conservation [local parks, trails, etc.]

Approximately 37,441 people are illiterate in Iztapalapa.

70% of people in Iztapalapa are employed as labor workers (ex: construction jobs, machine factory workers, etc.) day laborers, and servants mostly in activities of truck drivers and construction.

Of 100% of the water sent into the houses of the inhabitants of Mexico City, 42% of the water’s lost to leaks (720K Liters/minute is lost).

57.4% of the population in Iztapalapa does not pass 3 minimum wage salaries per day. [$450 MXN | $23.04 USD]

The families of Iztapalapa have fixed fees bimonthly — because of a deficit in the installation of gauges by 4%. [$44.74 MXN — $84.73 MXN | $2.25 USD — $4.27 USD]

Due to the leakages in the infrastructure of Mexico City, Iztapalapa has been forced to buy expensive sources of potable water like water trucks (aka pipas) and water bottles.

Source: Water From The Tubing System In Iztapalapa

1.2 Population

In Mexico City, over-exploitation of the aquifers and the wells causes the cracks in the pipes and the ground to be a constant mess. Other shocks and stresses from this list relate to the lack of access to water. Some of the most vulnerable communities in the Iztapalapa sector don’t have access to running potable water and rely on water supplied by water trucks (pipas).

1/2 liter bottle of water is MXN 8 [~ USD 0.40]

1 Liter bottle of water is MXN 12 [~ USD 0.60]

20 Liters in a jug cost MXN 48 [~ USD 2.46]

Pay for a pipa (water truck) costs ~$450 MXN in colony of Paraje San Juan, Iztapalapa. Pipas can take up to three weeks to fulfill water from requests that have been placed. The average daily income is MXN 172 [USD 8.81]. However, ~8% of Iztapalapa’s population has an income below MXN 3000. [USD 153.41] The average family of 4 in Iztapalapa has to spend 15-25% of their monthly income on water purchasing.

Each adult drinks around 2.14 liters of water per day. People under <18 yrs drink around 1.75 liters of water per day.

Iztapalapan water is contaminated with human feces and pesticides located in the wells and tubes that send water to the region of Iztapalapa. In certain wells of Iztapalapa, heavy metals like iron, arsenic, and lead are present. The further you go east in the delegation of Iztapalapa, the water becomes more contaminated with heavy metals.

“The water is deficient, it arrives every 8 days and sometimes, when it arrives it is wormy and smelly, tamarind-like or tiger nut colored. When we have water, we use it for cleaning and try to recycle it.” - Family from Eastern Iztapalapa 💬

“The first bimester is $91 MXN ($4.63 USD) for the water from the system, sometimes up to $100 MXN ($5.00 USD) per bimester.”- Maria E.| Iztapalapa 💬

95 people from a case study in Iztapalapa were asked about what is more important about their water intake. Approximately 32% of these 95 people said that the quality of water and the supply of water is the most important traits of their water. This tendency is because the citizens don’t count on a cistern to store potable water.

The people from the study gave an average of how much they would pay for potable water: MXN 100 per bimester (USD 5.00)

Water Truck (Pipa) In The Burough Of Iztapalapa

1.3 Solution Background

To provide water for the delegation of Iztapalapa and the rest of the world, provide safe drinking water by filtering out industrial wastes like heavy metals. (Pathogens can be removed via boiling)

  1. Be very cheap
  2. Be biodegradable
  3. Fit in your pocket
  4. Be easy to maintain.

A promising alternative method to eliminate this issue is by using a frontier material like nanocellulose and calcium alginate aerogels.

But Carlos. . .

2.0 The Solution: Aquaperla

Source

2.1 What Is An Aerogel?

Aerogel is the world’s lightest solid. How light you ask? It’s 99.8% air by volume. If you were to take out the air inside of the aerogel above, the material would weigh less than the air you breathe. Crazy!

The reason why it’s so light is because of the microscopic holes in the material known as pores. These pores give aerogel the ability to absorb light, air, and water. Don’t forget that there are thousands of these microscopic pores in a small sample (1.5 grams) of aerogel. Think of aerogel like the sponge you use to wash your dishes: it absorbs liquid inside of itself because there’s a lot of space inside of it. Like this: 👇

Source

If aerogels can absorb water like SpongeBob, then aerogels can absorb anything that we desire to remove. The objective is to remove any heavy metal ions and organic compounds from wastewater to make it potable.

But we can’t use the aerogel that you may have seen on YouTube videos like Veritasium, The Action Lab, AerogelTech, etc. That aerogel is known as silica; it will break into small shards when you try and pinch it. The reason it won’t work is that there’s not enough surface contact between the chains of molecules that make up the aerogel skeleton… or you could say that the molecules aren’t holding hands tightly.

Enter bio-aerogels: Mother Nature’s creation… applied.

2.2 The Chemistry

Cellulose Aerogel - Chemistry

Cellulose is one of the most abundant materials on Earth and biodegradable in 6 - 10 months. Its chemistry is made out of hydroxyl groups [OH], methoxyl [CH2OH], and ether groups. [C-O-C]

Source

The cellulose is hydrophilic because of the OH groups. The electronegativity is over 0.5 if we subtract the electronegativity from the oxygen atom (3.44) and a hydrogen atom. (2.1) | (3.44 - 2.1 = 1.34)

In Layman’s terms: It means that water will be sucked into the aerogel and won’t be able to escape.

But the cellulose is also partially hydrophobic because of the hydrophobic bonds made between Carbon and Hydrogen in the methoxyl [CH2-OH] bonds. These are otherwise known as amphiphilic groups.

But we can’t have a partially-hydrophobic aerogel. We need the aerogel to be completely hydrophobic to filter out contaminants. We need a methyoxylation process. This process transforms the cellulose aerogel into a hydrophobic version of its former self. We can add hydrophobic groups like Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTES) or methyl radicals (CH3) as a gas or as a liquid.

But hold up. You can’t boil heavy metal ions out of contaminated water. So…

Calcium Alginate Aerogel - Chemistry

Algins are found in brown seaweed and take between 10 - 12 months to biodegrade completely. Its chemistry is made up of carboxyl groups (COOH) and carboxylate groups. (COO-)

Source

Alginate has a negative charge (anionic), while heavy metals have a positive charge (cationic). This is perfect for the alginate to attract heavy metals! This interaction is like a magnet: Opposites attract.

So now we know that chemistry works. We’re not breaking any laws here. But how will we convert the raw materials into the final product: Aquaperlas?

2.3 The Materials *For Now*

This is the ideation of what materials we may use. This can change once we begin to build the physical product.

2.3.1 Calcium Alginate Aerogel Materials

Calcium Alginate (4.0 grams) → USD 0.032

15 mL of (Tetraethoxysilane) TEOS → $0.054 USD

150 mL of deionized water → USD 0.069

30 mL hydrochloric acid (0.02 M) → $0.021 USD

Graphene Oxide (2 mL) → USD 0.37

100 cm³ of polystyrene → ~$0.12 USD

Electricity cost for rapid stirring in a mixer for 45 min → USD 0.21 - USD 0.40

2.3.2 Cellulose Aerogel Materials

Sodium Carboxymethyl Microcrystalline Cellulose (CMC) → USD 0.12 per 100 cm³

100 cm³ of Tertiary Butanol → USD 0.091

100 cm³ of Sodium Hydroxide → USD 0.08

150 mL of deionized water → USD 0.069

30 mL hydrochloric acid (0.02 M) → $0.021 USD

Electricity cost for rapid stirring in a mixer for 45 min → USD 0.21 — USD 0.40

2.4 The Manufacturing Process

An Overview of the Manufacturing Process:

  1. Dissolution (Precursors, Catalysts, Mixing)
  2. Gelation (Wet Gels/Hydrogels, Hydrophobization)
  3. Solvent Exchange (Compounds)
  4. Drying (Freeze-Drying, Ambient Pressure Drying)
Overview of The Manufacturing Process

Dissolution

Because the constituents of cellulose and alginate are packaged thanks to Mother Nature, we need to extract the molecules that we want to create the pearls. This can include organic & inorganic waste like orange peels and paper. There’s cellulose in it!

One way to remove the unnecessary molecules is to sonify is used for about 6 mins on the NaOH/urea solution. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, and this allows for the compounds to be extracted. The solution is then placed into a refrigerator to allow for the cooling aspect of the procedure. Cellulose should be dissolved in 7–9% NaOH in water and are gelling with temperature increase, and also with time.

Gelation

Gelation of the gel takes between 12–20 minutes for the wet gel to become a solid. In the case of both aerogels, the best process is known as phase separation. In the preparation of calcium alginate aerogels, a common compound that’s used is an ethanol coagulation system that forms polymer-rich and polymer-poor areas in the solution. The compound will now crosslink to form the rough skeleton of the aerogel.

Solvent Exchange

The solvent exchange stage is carried out in smaller pieces because organic solvents and water have different surface tensions and pore collapse may occur because of the concentration gradient. This collapse will lead to the destruction of gel structure and shrinkage of the material.

Gel samples are transferred from water to solutions of water and an organic solvent with a sequential increase in the concentration of the organic solvent. At the final steps of solvent exchange, the gels are placed several times in a pure organic solvent. It’s diffusion all over again. This part of the process can take up to 3 days maximum.

Drying

The final step involves the material getting the air sucked out of it to become an aerogel. Instead of water in the pores, there will be air. But you have to be careful. You can’t just dry the material out by evaporation. The material will shrink in on itself and collapse. Like this: 👇

Source

There are two ways of drying our aerogels to prevent such a catastrophe. We can go the freeze-drying route or the sodium bi-carbonate route.

The freeze-drying route of aerogels will, well… freeze the aerogels. LOL.

What the process does is decrease the isobaric process (the pressure is held constant) and past its triple point (aka the critical point for the freeze-drying method). The temperature must be raised again to bring the material out of the triple point and convert the interior into its gaseous state. Turning the interior into a gas creates the solid structure of the aerogel.

Side Note: In research papers, freeze-dried aerogels are known as cryogels. Why? “Cryo” is the Greek word for cold [κρύο]

Source

There you go, reader! That’s the overview of the manufacturing process!

Shaping Of The Perlas

One additional trick to our aerogels to make them into pearls/beads is the shape. The reason we’ll make them into beads is because of the higher surface area to volume ratio, low bulk density, the diameter of the beads, and the reusability component.

On the macro scale, spheres have the smallest surface area to volume ratio. But the smaller the sphere, the larger the surface area becomes and the smaller the volume becomes. Why? There’s not a lot of liquid that can pass through the spheres. Our aerogel beads will be between 2 mm - 3.5 mm in diameter.

Bulk density is the mass over the volume of a certain object. Because our beads are very small, the cost to create something small will be cost-effective. The average density for our beads will be between 0.12 g/cm³ - 0.15 g/cm³.

The aerogel will be formed determined b the shape of its container. We’ll use bead containers to create the small beads. Calcium Chloride (Ca-Cl2) will be used for the alginate beads to convert them into hydrogel perlas.

Great, Carlos! But how does it work? How do I use it?

2.5 How It Works

Think back to a sponge (or Spongebob if you like). It absorbs water and soap, cleans the dish, and the sponge will release water and soap when squeezed tightly. Our aerogels will work similarly to this.

Step 1: Bag Of Aerogel Beads + Contaminated Water

Collect your bag of cellulose, alginate, or a mixed bag of aerogel perlas. Make sure to have your contaminated water next to you.

Note: The green dots are the aerogel beads. That’s where the magic happens!

Source

Step 2: Soak The Aerogel Beads In The Water

Take your bag of aerogel beads and add them to the container of contaminated water. Let the beads sit in the water for approximately 60 - 90 minutes.

Source

Step 3: Squeeze That Bag!

Squeeze the bag to remove any contaminants. Think of squeezing a sponge. For heavy metals, dip the bag in a container of vinegar to remove the metals. Why? Because the metals and the alginate aerogels are like a magnet. You need another substance to un-magnetize them. Vinegar does the job. It doesn’t matter what type of vinegar.

Source

Step 4: Reuse The Aerogel Beads Up To 10-30 Times

The alginate aerogels can be reused up to 20–30 times before losing 2.5% adsorption capability! (Linhai Pan et al. 2018)

The cellulose aerogels can be reused up to 15 times before reaching a 90% adsorption capability! (Wei Zhu et al. 2021)

The number of available reuses depends on the materials that created the aerogel perlas.

Source

Step 5: Yeet It! It’s Biodegradable!

Cellulose takes 6–10 months to biodegrade completely. Alginate takes 10–12 months to biodegrade completely. No harm done to the environment!

Source

The Mesh Bag

Just in case: If some of you were asking, “Carlos, is the mesh bag biodegradable?”

Yes. It can and will be biodegradable. The mesh bag will contain cellulose that will have to contain hydrophobicity. Otherwise, the bag will shrink and absorb the water!

However, it will take longer for the bag to biodegrade than the beads. If it took the same time to biodegrade as the beads, there’s no proper storage of the bead filters.

Great, Carlos. But how much do I have to pay if I want a glass of water?

2.6 The *Estimated* Costs

Cost (Cellulose Aerogel Beads)

Note: Due to a lack of knowledge, I’m assuming the cost of [the materials to make] 100 cm³ of aerogel is USD 0.65 (Source 1) | (Source 2) | (Source 3)

An adsorption study was carried out by immersing 10 mg aerogels in 50 mL of malachite green dye at concentrations ranging between 10–400 mg/L. (Source)

The bulk cellulose aerogel density is 0.05 g/cm³

10 mg x (1g/1000mg) = 0.01 g

50 mL x (1L/1000mL) = 0.05 L

0.01 g/0.05 L = 0.2 g of cellulose/L of contaminated water

The production costs are approximately USD 0.65 for the manufacturing of 100 cm³ of aerogel.

0.05 g/cm³ x 100 = 5g/100 cm³

It costs approximately $0.65 USD to make 5 grams of aerogel.

5g/(0.2g/L) = 25 L can be filtered for $0.65 USD

$0.65 USD/25L = $0.026 USD/Liter [$0.51 MXN/Liter] of bacteria, oil, and dye-contaminated water

Cost (Calcium Alginate Aerogel)

Note: Due to a lack of knowledge, I’m assuming the cost of [the materials to make] 100 cm³ of aerogel is $0.65 USD (Source 1) | (Source 2) | (Source 3)

About 10 mg of SPFe3O4 /alginate-Nano-Composites was filled the column and 15 mL of Cd 2+ (Cd 2+ ions) solutions pH range from 3 to 7 was adjusted with HCl (0.01–0.1 N) and NaOH (0.01–0.1 N) (Source)

10 mg x (1 g/1000 mg) = 0.01 g
15 mL x (1 L/1000 mL) = 0.015 L
0.01 g/0.015 L = 0.667 g of alginate aerogel/L of polluted water

Alginate Aerogel Beads have an approximate bulk density of 0.15 g/cm³

The production costs are approximately USD 0.65 for the manufacturing of 100 cm³ of aerogel.

0.15 g/cm³ x 100 = 15 g/100 cm³

It costs approximately $0.65 USD to make 15 grams of alginate aerogel.

15 g/(0.667 g/L) = 22.48 Liters can be filtered for $0.65 USD

$0.65/22.48 L = $0.029 USD/Liter [$0.57 MXN/Liter] of heavy-metal contaminated water

2.7 Benefit/Cost Ratio Per Person

Guideline 1: We’ll use Iztapalapa and Papua New Guinea as our examples to determine how much it would cost for 50 Liters of Water.

Guideline 2: We’ll divide this section into 3 parts: Cellulose Aerogel Only, Alginate Aerogel Only, and Mixed.

2.7.1 Cellulose Aerogel Only (Iztapalapa)

The amount of dirty water shown in Section 1.1 is approximately 9 Liters.

Calling a pipa is approximately MXN 450 [USD 76.71] for approximately 117 liters.

A 20-Liter Jug in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 48 [USD 2.45]

A 1-liter water bottle in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 8 [USD 0.41]

1 Liter Filtration with Cellulose Aerogel Perlas is USD 0.026 [MXN 0.51]

$0.026 USD/L×117 L = $3.04 USD | $0.51 MXN/L×117 L = $59.67 MXN

$0.026 USD/L×20 L = $0.52 USD | $0.51 MXN/L×20 L = $10.20 MXN

$0.026 USD/L×1 L = $0.026 USD | $0.51 MXN/L×1 L = $0.51 MXN

Our cellulose aerogel filter (only) can give a resident from Iztapalapa the exact amount from the pipa 7x cheaper, almost 5x cheaper for 20-Liter water jugs, and almost 16x cheaper for 1 liter.

2.7.2 Cellulose Aerogel Only (Papua New Guinea)

It costs USD 2.30 in Papua New Guinea to call a service for 50 Liters of water. This cost is approximately 54% of their daily income spent on the water. The average daily income is USD 4.51.

1 Liter Filtration with Cellulose Aerogel Perlas is $0.026 USD

$0.026 USD/L×50 L = $1.30 USD

By using cellulose aerogel (only), we can save families in Papua New Guinea a whole dollar! They can receive water for 1.7x cheaper.

2.7.3 Calcium Alginate Aerogel Only (Iztapalapa)

There are some occasions and places where the families can boil the water but are unable to remove the heavy metal ions. In Eastern Iztapalapa, the water tends to have a higher concentration of heavy metals like iron, lead, and arsenic. This is when our calcium aerogel perlas come in.

The amount of dirty water shown in Section 1.1 is approximately 9 Liters.

Calling a pipa is approximately MXN 450 [USD 76.71] for approximately 117 liters.

A 20-Liter Jug in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 48 [USD 2.45]

A 1-liter water bottle in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 8 [USD 0.41]

1 Liter Filtration with Alginate Aerogel Perlas is USD 0.029 [MXN 0.57]

$0.029 USD/L×117 L = $3.39 USD | $0.57 MXN/L×117 L = $66.69 MXN

$0.029 USD/L×20 L = $0.58 USD | $0.57 MXN/L×20 L = $11.40 MXN

$0.029 USD/L×1 L = $0.029 USD | $0.57 MXN/L×1 L = $0.57 MXN

Our cellulose aerogel filter (only) can give a resident from Iztapalapa the exact amount from the pipa 6.7x cheaper, almost 4.2x cheaper for 20-Liter water jugs, and almost 14x cheaper for 1 liter.

2.7.4 Calcium Alginate Aerogel Only (Papua New Guinea)

There are some occasions and places where the families can boil the water but are unable to remove the heavy metal ions. In Eastern Iztapalapa, the water tends to have a higher concentration of heavy metals like iron, lead, and arsenic. This is when our calcium aerogel perlas come in.

It costs USD 2.30 in Papua New Guinea to call a service for 50 Liters of water. This cost is approximately 54% of their daily income spent on the water. The average daily income is USD 4.51.

1 Liter Filtration with Alginate Aerogel Perlas is $0.029 USD

$0.029 USD/L×50 L = $1.45 USD

By using cellulose aerogel (only), we can save families in Papua New Guinea USD 0.85. They can receive water for 1.5x cheaper.

2.7.5 Both Aerogels (Iztapalapa)

There are places in Iztapalapa and the world that may not have access to boiling their water to remove organic compounds, oils, and dyes. This is when they may need both filters.

The amount of dirty water shown in Section 1.1 is approximately 9 Liters.

Calling a pipa is approximately MXN 450 [USD 76.71] for approximately 117 liters.

A 20-Liter Jug in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 48 [USD 2.45]

A 1-liter water bottle in Iztapalapa is approximately MXN 8 [USD 0.41]

1 Liter Filtration with Both Aerogel Perlas is USD 0.055 [MXN 1.08]

$0.055 USD/L×117 L = $6.44 USD | $1.08 MXN/L×117 L = $126.36 MXN

$0.055 USD/L×20 L = $1.10 USD | $1.08 MXN/L×20 L = $21.60 MXN

$0.055 USD/L×1 L = $0.055 USD | $1.08 MXN/L×1 L = $1.08 MXN

Both aerogel filters can give a resident from Iztapalapa the exact amount from the pipa 3.56x cheaper, almost 2x cheaper for 20-Liter water jugs, and almost 7.5x cheaper for 1 liter.

2.7.6 Both Aerogels (Papua New Guinea)

It costs USD 2.30 in Papua New Guinea to call a service for 50 Liters of water. This cost is approximately 54% of their daily income spent on the water. The average daily income is USD 4.51.

1 Liter Filtration with Both Aerogel Perlas is $0.055 USD

$0.055 USD/L×50 L = $2.75 USD

Unfortunately, it may not be applicable to use both aerogels in a situation like Papua New Guinea unless the price of manufacturing is cheaper than what’s written in the article. The price of both aerogels would have to be $0.04 USD/L for this to be successful.

3.0 Conclusions & Ask

This solution will help some families in our town that need a quick way to clean their water from their wells at a cheap price. - Gabriella Sorroza, Ejutla de Crespo

This technology looks interesting! - Tim Yeo, EcoWorth Tech

This is a nice application [of aerogels]. - Alex Murdock, Thermulon

That is to say, looking for a new source of [quality] supply is the correct appreciation within this proposal that requires many pieces to be truly impactful… [such as] such as leak repair, rational water use, wastewater treatment, etc. - Hiram García, Isla Urbana

3.1 Aquaperla & The Vision

My team’s vision is a universe of infinite water available to the public without the threat of companies inserting a high price tag on an essential resource for survival. Aquaperlas will *literally* put the power of potable water in your hands… wrapped together nicely in a mesh bag ;-)

Source

3.2 Aquaperla’s Ask

Aquaperla is looking for:

  1. Mentors with greater knowledge and experience than our team in aerogel technology and with the communities of Iztapalapa.
  2. An initial amount of USD 3000 - USD 5000
  3. Lab space to start developing the first aerogel beads for our target filter:
  • Cellulose Aerogels: Bacteria and organic compounds (dyes)
  • Alginate Aerogels: Arsenic metal ions and lead metal ions

3.3 Next Steps

Aquaperla will be examining the water of Ejutla de Crespo, Oaxaca, Mexico during the upcoming weeks [from the day the proposal is published]. They will present this proposal and additional content to the mayor of the town to pilot test the product before the end of 2023.

In 2023, the team will be creating the aerogel beads for pilot testing using the contaminated rivers of Ejutla de Crespo before the launch in Iztapalapa before the end of 2024.

By 2025, we will be testing the product in Iztapalapa and branch out into the world, starting with Bangladesh and its arsenic metal ion water crisis or Papua New Guinea and its ridiculous prices for 50 liters of water.

By the end of 2028, Aquaperla will be distributed locally in commercial supermarkets like Costco and online. The company should have a $100 Million Value.

3.4 Learn More About Aquaperla

Visit us at Aquaperla.com or watch our YouTube pitch:

3.5 Sources + People

Heavy Metal Ions In Wastewater By Using A Novel Alginate EDTA Hybrid Aerogel

Amphiphilic Calcium Alginate Carbon Aerogels: Broad-Spectrum Adsorbents for Ionic and Solvent Dyes with Multiple Functions for Decolorized Oil–Water Separation

Polyurea-crosslinked biopolymer aerogel beads†

Evaluation of Polyurea-Crosslinked Alginate Aerogels for Seawater Decontamination

Millimeter-Size Spherical Polyurea Aerogel Beads with Narrow Size Distribution

Metal-doped carbons from polyurea-crosslinked alginate aerogel beads†

Green-synthesis of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 /alginate bio-nanocomposites for heavy metal contamination removal from industrial wastewater

Adsorption and desorption of cationic malachite green dye on cellulose nanofibril aerogels

Removal Of Co(II) And Se(VI) From Raw Metal And Glass Industry Wastewater Using Nano-SiO2 / ZrO2-Calcium Alginate Aerogels

Low-Cost Silica Aerogel Production

Efficient Removal of Lead, Copper, and Cadmium Ions from Water by a Porous Calcium Alginate/Graphene Oxide Composite Aerogel

Papua New Guinea Case Study

Determination of the hydrogeochemical processes involved in the composition of the water supply sources for the inhabitants of the Iztapalapa Iztapalapa, D.F., Mexico. (Spanish)

Economic valuation of drinking water in Iztapalapa, D. F.

Official Gazette Of Mexico City (PDF, Spanish)

Social Vulnerability To The Decrease In Water Supply In The Federal District: The Case Of The Effects On Household Health In Iztapalapa. (Spanish)

Water Contamination: Santa Cruz Meyehualco Colony | Iztapalapa Delegation (Spanish)

Design Of A Model To Improve The Integrated Management Of Drinking Water In The Iztapalapa Delegation Of Mexico City (Spanish)

Water Aid: At What Price (PDF) | Spanish

Isla Urbana Questionaire (PDF) | Spanish

Mikky Artz (Artist | Instagram)

Connect →🔗

Twitter

YouTube

cjarquin0005@gmail.com

© 2022 by Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez. All Rights Reserved.

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17 | Building Aquaperla: Extracting Value From Waste(water)

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Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez

Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez

17 | Building Aquaperla: Extracting Value From Waste(water)