operation oaxaca: the heavyweight.

zinc hydroxide. (027)

Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez
5 min readMar 10, 2024

this is carlos.

time to move quickly.

there’s a lot of distractions.

youtube, late nights, music, girls, what else?

the world that i wanna see and where i am right now is on me.

so the further i get away from these things…

the closer i’ll get to the vision.

and by default, i’ll get everything else for free as a reward (including the distractions).

the longer it takes for “x” thing to happen, the harder it hits.

time to hit the internet.

and speak about the last of the chemical groups to consider for mango adsorption.

and the metal ion selection for this wet lab.



we gunna talk about the economics and the production levels.

then talk about the chemistry/lab concept.

but this will be the heavy metal ion we will use…

to prove that mother nature has descended upon us our answer.

page 56, from us geological survey (2016)

developing countries’ percentage of zinc production: 59%; without china, 22%.

developing countries’ percentage of zinc reserves: 41%; without china, 22%.

zinc resources in the world are about 1.9 billion metric tons.

and from worldbank data…

the value of zinc for march 2024 was worth USD 2359 / metric ton.

the zinc value priced was determined via the london metal exchange.

and the zinc was refined, standard special high grade, physical settlement.

but for zinc substitutes:

aluminum and plastics substitute for:

  • galvanized sheet in automobiles & aluminum alloy
  • cadmium
  • paint

plastic coatings replace zinc coatings in other applications.

aluminum & magnesium-based alloys are major competitors for zinc-based dye-casting alloys.

a market that would require zinc in the near/late future is energy technologies.

because by 2050, our society has agreed to advance to low-carbon, renewable energy.

and now, what energy technologies need zinc?

the majority of the share goes to wind technologies.

the zinc demand is expected to increase by more than 200% by 2050 for our energy needs.

the estimated amount of zinc for 2050 is 5,150–5,750 kilograms per megawatt of energy produced via wind technologies.

p.s. → this zinc mentioned will be used for galvanizing ‘engineering steel’.

galvanize → coat iron or steel with a protective layer of zinc.

why is zinc the main material for clean-energy technologies (wind)?

because zinc is predominantly used for protecting wind turbines from corrosion.

here’s how:

zinc is primarily used in galvanizing steel to protect it from corrosion.

when zinc-coated steel is exposed to the atmosphere, a series of chemical reactions occur.

initially, zinc reacts with oxygen in the air to form a layer of zinc oxide.

moisture reacts with this layer to form zinc hydroxide.

then it interacts with carbon dioxide to create a protective barrier layer of insoluble zinc compounds.

this creates zinc carbonates.

zinc carbonates have low solubility in water.

which enhances their ability to protect the surface of the zinc coating effectively.

normally, iron (a component of steel) can react with oxygen in the air and begin to rust the steel in wind technologies.

add a humid environment or water, and the corrosion is faster.

zinc carbonates have low solubility in water… which enhances their ability to protect the surface of the zinc coating effectively.

things that affect the insolubility of zinc carbonates involve the ionic bonding and the physical properties.

the melting point of zinc carbonates is 572 °F.

in the chemical structure of zinc carbonate, the zinc cation (Zn²+) and the carbonate anion (CO3²-) are held together by ionic bonds.

this strong ionic bonding between zinc and carbonate ions contributes to the stability & insolubility of zinc carbonate in water.

the solubility of zinc carbonate (as a powder) was calculated as 0.001g / 100g of water at 15 °C.

solubility → the ability of a substance (solute, the zinc carbonate) to form a solution with another substance (solvent, the water).

zinc hydroxide.

the mineral / heavy metal ion for this proof-of-concept will be zinc.

and the raw material for zinc will be in the form of zinc hydroxide.

zinc has two valence electrons in its outer shell.

those electrons will bond with two hydroxide groups.

regular zinc element.

but we want the heavy metal ion form.

this means we must remove the two valence electrons on its outermost shell.


we do not want to affect the solution (of water) we will use in our experiment to filter the zinc ions from water.

so the best way to have both outcomes is to use a molecule that will give us water.

enter the hydroxide groups.

introducing water molecules into the environment with zinc hydroxide will create two water molecules.

this also considers that the pH can be lower than seven to provide hydrogen ions (H+) to bond to the two hydroxide ions.

this will result in our two water molecules and our zinc-heavy metal ions.

zinc ion gave it’s outermost electrons to hydroxide.

Zn(OH)2 → 2(OH⁻) + Zn²⁺

for the two hydroxide groups…

if we lower the pH of the water below seven…

we will have H+ ions, or protons floating around.

the H+ proton and the extra electron can create another hydrogen atom on the hydroxide group…

and make a water molecule.

Zn(OH)2 + 2H⁺ → Zn²⁺ + 2(H2O)

so now, it’s time to shut up and make.

onto the next horizon.

© 2024–2100 by Carlos Manuel Jarquín Sánchez. All Rights Reserved.